Strategy choice and procedure model
A process model organizes a process of creative production into various, structured sections, which in turn are assigned to corresponding methods and techniques of the organization. The task of a procedure model is to present the tasks and activities that generally occur in a design process in a logical order that makes sense. With their definitions, procedural models are organizational aids that can and should be tailor-made for specific tasks (projects), and which, as such, can be used to guide concrete action planning.
Different authors propagate a wide variety of process models. These vary on the one hand in the number and meaning of the different phases, on the other hand in terms of their field of application. Thus, process models are used intensively for innovations (especially in software development) and change projects (change management). All procedural models have in common the gradual path from problem to solution and their systematically rational approach (as opposed to trial and error, see decision style). The individual phases are ideal types. In practice, it is often necessary to iterate and “jump back”. Phase-oriented milestones are designed to minimize the risk and cost of failure.
With correspondingly extended models, it is possible to determine – in addition to defined activities, phases and methods – also (per activity) which results are to be achieved, which prerequisites must be met, who can be involved in the processing and in which role etc.
In contrast to a procedural model, which applies to projects, ie temporally limited, a behavioral code or a code of conduct is a collection that regulates certain actions for an unlimited period of time and possibly sanctions them, for example in the context of equality. Another variant for procedure rules are business process models in which the procedure is also valid for business processes.
The procedural model developed by Erwin Grochla (1982) and first for public administrations and public corporations and their procurement of data processing systems and application programs (see also Supplementary Contractual Terms for the Procurement of IT Services (EVB-IT)) differed in a strict separation the following phases:
- Preliminary investigation
- Actual state
- Actual state criticism
- Target conception – Solution generation
- Target conception – Solution evaluation and selection
- Introduction / implementation
- Evaluation and development